Proto-Germanic -> West-Germanic -> Old English Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language Robin Dunbar opens GROOMING, GOSSIP, AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE, his study of language, by evoking … The Symbolic Species is a 1997 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon on the evolution of language. - Generalisierung: wachsende Abstraktheit – Wissen greifbar machen – Entwicklung sprachlicher Zeichen (ikonisch wie Hieroglyphen, Ähnlichkeit zum dargestellten Objekt, später symbolisch), Entwicklung von Morphemen ", (R.L. - systemic dimension: natural language codes fairly complex structured systems – external and internal influence (external: language contact through political, social or cultural change, innovations in business and technology; internal: gradual replacement of inflectional endings in favour of prepositions and word order, colloquial style, new lexical items accommodated, others obsolete), - proceed along different paths, often relate to social variables - Humans evolved from primate animals Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. - closest relatives are Frisian and Dutch Transmission to new learners, communicative use, interactions among speakers in a community, and the structure of the world, all leave their imprint on the structure of languages (see Figure 2 for a description of two structural design features of language that have been claimed to be adaptations arising from cultural evolution… No scholar takes this idea seriously today. For Kendon, as for most others who consider gestural origins of language, gestures are placed in opposition to speech and vocalization. - withdrawal of Roman legions in 499 A.D., left cultural infrastructure and settlements with Latin names, - Germanic people increasingly arrived and settled south and east of British Isles, small kingdoms emerged (Alfred the Great – Wessex as leading kingdom), - Old English: Engleland for “land of the Angles”, - language of settlers in contact with Latin, Celtic and Old Danish – language mixing, - Battle of Hastings, 1066: beginning of Norman rule, mixing of Germanic and Romance language, end of Old English (exclusively Germanic), - manuscripts: scattered inscriptions (in Runic alphabet), no written evidence, - literate age began under leadership of St.Augustine in 597, developed in monasteries -> translation of church-related texts, - transfer of orally transmitted bits of poetry into written form (Beowolf), - descriptive texts: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, - Old English no longer readable without specific bits of knowledge, - spelling: two different characters to represent Modern English dental fricative, - phonemes: sch represented as sc, dsch as different phonemes like g and j, - lexicon: majority of words Germanic origin, but have been replaced now, - morpho-syntax: Old English highly inflected language, strict word order regulations not necessary – noun inflection in stem-gender-case-number (Modern English: two inflectional endings – genitive case and singular/plural); verb inflection tendency for simplification of morphological verbal system (strong verbs converted into weak verbs, 4 defining forms for strong verbs reduced to 3 and then 2, past form assumed present meaning, modal verbs no -s ending or infinitive), - Runenschrift: Angelsachsen nicht schreibkundig, keine schriftlichen Dokumente, runisches Zeichensystem = Futhark, Rune bedeutet Geheimnis, ursprünglich Verschlüsselungsverfahren, Ähnlichkeit mit Buchstaben -> wahrscheinl. extreme rise of loanwords from Anglo-Norman French in English after 1066 – Middle English), changes in economy and technology, - standardisation of language: descriptive attitude, lexicography and language teaching have normative-descriptive attitude, achieve better standardisation of language and language teaching (dictionaries and grammar guides) - gedruckte Texte In contemplating how language arose, evolutionists frequently link the development of the brain to the appearance of languages. . This theory came in the 18th century and was the work … . Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language … English is essentially a ''patchwork'' language because of these influences--not just in vocabulary, but in grammar and syntax as well. Oxford University Press, 2003), - "[P]rimitive speakers were not reticent and reserved beings, but youthful men and women babbling merrily on, without being so particular about the meaning of each word. . These regularities have allowed linguists to discover many of the processes of language evolution, and how language evolution may be similar to biological evolution. But when one considers that more than 6,000 languages exist, it is incomprehensible to suggest that the invention of language could be viewed as some sort of simple, clear-cut addition to human physiology made possible by an enlarged brain unique to Homo sapiens. - reconstruction of pre-history of language: analysis of earliest forms of language, comparison, assumptions on possible common ancestor of language Oxford University Press, 2014), "Language-ready modern children learn vocabulary voraciously before they begin to make grammatical utterances several words long. Approaches to the Evolution of Language. Grammar would have been equally useful whether language evolved to subserve a social or a technological function. Some possible stages in the evolution of the language … And views have diverged greatly on the matter of what is an acceptable proxy. Terrance D… . - part of population bilingual. . Language is always evolving and the English language might have gone through the quickest phase of evolution which can be seen through examples of … Note that the issue here is not the evolution of grammar as such, but the evolution of language. bee dance), - commonalities among languages of the world: vowels and consonants, word units, sentence units, means for expressing time relations Such characteristics are . History of the English Language The Importance of the Language: It is the means by which man … It can be argued, from a phylogenetic perspective, the origin of human sign languages is coincident with the origin of human languages; sign languages, that is, are likely to have been the first true languages. Some English pronunciations and words … - food-related signals: food calls - Greeks: writing from left to right abbreviations) - communicative dimension: languages subject to at least two opposing forces, producers reduce coding effort, recipients prefer coding that is maximally unambiguous and robust against disturbance – languages redundant, bits of information multiply coded (e.g. Late Modern English developed between 1800 and 2000. ", (Robin I.A. Indeed, some believe that its roots go all the way back to Homo habilis, a tiny-brained hominid that lived in Africa not far short of two million years ago. 1.3 Language evolution and biology We start by examining the uniqueness of language in biological terms, in comparison with other animal communication systems. "Human teeth are upright, not slanting outwards like those of apes, and they are roughly even in height. - most widely spoken: Celtic, oral transmission Language originated as play, and the organs of speech were first trained in this singing sport of idle hours. - "It is quite interesting to note that these modern views [on the commonality of language and music and of language and dance] were anticipated in great detail by Jespersen (1922: 392-442). Over the centuries, many theories have been put forward—and almost all of them have been challenged, discounted, and ridiculed. Cambridge University Press, 2014). As with evolution, the development of language is an irresistible force - though traditionalists invariably attempt to build barriers against change. - Wortschatz: Lehnwörter (kingly = royal, Küche: beef, pork) The time range for the evolution of language or its anatomical prerequisites extends, at least in principle, from the phylogenetic divergence of Homo (2.3 to 2.4 million … - symbolising syllables – wedge-shaped signs, representing sounds/consonants – sign for a word to designate initial sound Nearly everybody can communicate, and most do so through some form of language, and yet the question of where language came from is one of the … - Romans: distinction between capital letters (Majuskel) and small letters (Minuskel), growth of literacy, increased handwriting, printing and modern computer-based fonts as varieties of writing on Roman basis – Germanic runic system did not survive, - bee dance, bird songs, whale songs, primate language Reams of nonsense have been written about the subject" (The Talking Ape, 2005). ", (David F. Armstrong and Sherman E. Wilcox, The Gestural Origin of Language. First language. Evolution of Language. "Babies are born with their larynxes in a high position, like monkeys. - interpretation of animal communication: more complex and subtle than believed, multiple distinct meanings depending on context (relaxion or anxiety,…), - keine Aufzeichnungen aus der Frühzeit - "Instead of looking at types of sounds as the source of human speech, we can look at the types of physical features humans possess, especially those that are distinct from other creatures, which may have been able to support speech production. - abrupter Sprachwandel: durch Dekret verordnet, Schreibreform, Wörterbuch, Übernahme dauert länger, muss aber nicht akzeptiert werden The expression language origins refers to theories pertaining to the emergence and development of … . Lexikon weitgehend homogon, germanischer Ursprung, neue Bezeichnungen durch Wortbildungsmöglichkeiten (aus Substantiv wird Adjektiv durch Suffigierung, aus Adjektiv wird Adverb durch Suffigierung, Substantiv+Substantiv als neues Wort) From 1800 English vocabulary quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged. (See Where Does Language Come From?) is that it did. Instead, they propose a scenario according to which referential meaning was slowly grafted upon nearly autonomous melodious sound. - Humansprachen sind Zeichensysteme: symbolische Zeichen für abstrakte Sachverhalte, hierarchisch strukturiert (Lautsymbole zu Wortsymbolen), symbolische Zeichen miteinander vernetzt -> Bedeutung (Syntax) Jackendoff, Ray. . - investigation of external determinants of language change: correlate identified forms of language change to changes in society (e.g. This is functional, as there is a reduced risk of choking, and babies are not yet talking. Schrift, in Britannien bis ins 9.Jh. Schrift: seit d. Besetzung Britanniens durch Römer, religiöse Texte, Gesetzestexte, wissenschaftl. Because of its physical nature, speech is both easier to compare with other species’ behaviors and easier to study in the fossil record than other aspects of language… Cambridge University Press, 1995), - "If, with [Dwight] Whitney, we think of 'language' as a complex of instrumentalities which serve in the expression of 'thought' (as he would say--one might not wish to put it quite like this today), then gesture is part of 'language.' John Benjamins, 2005). Updated April 26, 2018. ", (Norman A. Johnson, Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes. The Evolution of English George Boeree The English language begins with the Anglo-Saxons. There was no provision for the oral use … . very helpful in making sounds such as f or v. Human lips have much more intricate muscle lacing than is found in other primates and their resulting flexibility certainly helps in making sounds like p, b, and m. In fact, the b and m sounds are the most widely attested in the vocalizations made by human infants during their first year, no matter which language their parents are using. - Schreibung: keine standardisierte Schreibtradition, persönliche Schreibstile, regionale Unterschiede in der Aussprache (Suffixe in d. Aussprache entsprechenden Stellenwert – syllable-timing, da zu aufwändig eher stress-timing als dominierendes Prinzip des Wortrhythmus), - Altengl. By about the end of the first year, the human larynx descends to its near-adult lowered position. - William Jones 1786: Ähnlichkeiten zwischen Sanskrit, Griechisch, Latein, Keltisch, Gotisch -> gemeinsame Quelle = Indoeuropäisch bzw. - comparison of descriptions across languages and time (historical comparative linguistics): family relationships between languages, contact between languages, borrowing common Darwin started thinking about the origin of language in the late 1830s. - metacommunications: play face in dogs, contributions by Konrad Lorenz - Komplexität: Herstellung von Beziehungen – 3 Bestandteile (CRC-Unit), 3 Anforderungen (Adressierung von Konzepten, Abbildung komplexer Bausteine, Abbildung von Sichtweisen), zur Adressierung von Konzepten (Begriffe) Worteinheiten (Terme), Satzstrukturen, zur Abbildung von Sichtweisen aktiv-passiv Konstrukte, - 450-1066: Old English (Anglo-Saxon) from invasion of Germanic tribes to Battle of Hastings (historic events which had great impact on language), Beowolf, Alfred the Great The scenario by which language evolved in humans to assist the coordination of working together (as on the pre-historic equivalent of a loading dock) has been nicknamed the 'yo-heave-ho' model. . For us, the answer to the question, 'If language began as gesture, why did it not stay that way?' Ada Lovelace and Babbage and its nephew were writing programs for the project of "difference engine", and then the "analytical engine". English is a language in the Germanic branchof the Indo-European language family, but it has changed immensely from these Germanic roots. ", (Esa Itkonen, Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science. Routledge, 2014). In recent decades, however, scholars from such diverse fields as genetics, anthropology, and cognitive science have been engaged, as Christine Kenneally says, in "a cross-discipline, multidimensional treasure hunt" to find out how language began. - comparison of descriptions of a given language across different points of time (historical linguistics): diachronic approach, descriptions of language are compared across the time dimension, results are types of change like spelling, lexical inventories, word formation, word meaning, syntax,... Cultural Evolution of Language K Smith,UniversityofEdinburgh,Edinburgh,UK 2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved. - Sprachwandel oft durch Schulbildung unterdrückt, umgangssprachliche Formen breitere Akzeptanz, - Phoneme: feet, root - universal sentence constituents – indicative of biological structures of human brain, - language evolved as concomitant of cultural development – need emerged as knowledge of world developed For Dutch speakers, their language is known as Nederlands which denotes its area of origin. This is a case of ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny, the growth of the individual reflecting the evolution of the species. - morphology: rich inflectional system of nouns, strong verbs (reduplication of initial syllable, change of stem vowel), weak verbs (German invention, designate pastness with inflectional suffix –de) – in historical context strong verbs are not irregular! Some of the more fanciful explanations have been given nicknames, mainly to the effect of dismissal by ridicule. For those of us with an interest in language conceived of in this way, our task must include working out all the intricate ways in which gesture is used in relation to speech and of showing the circumstances in which the organization of each is differentiated from the other as well as the ways in which they overlap. - 1500-1650: Early Modern English (Renaissance English), radical change in vowel quality, Shakespeare, King James Bible In the Western world back in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, foreign language learning was associated with the learning of Latin and Greek, both supposed to promote their speakers' intellectuality. - Predecessors of human language have following characteristics: found across different species, purpose of communication was alarm calls, iconic (meaning of signs derived, little learning involved), signs are multi-modal (acoustic and visual), polysemy of signs (1 sign – many meanings, e.g. Trask, A Student's Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, 1997; rpt. Indogermanisch (besteht aus 140 Einzelsprachen), mit der friedlichen Ausbreitung der Landwirtschaft durchgesetzt, Sesshaftigkeit krempelte Leben, Kultur, soziale Organisation der Menschen um – Europa als Endpunkt der Wanderungen (Sprachen haben Wurzeln, wo Landwirtschaft entstand), - languages are subject to change – different approaches They chattered away for the mere pleasure of chattering . In the course of thinking about language and its evolution… - Neue Formen des Wissens zugänglich -> Wissen weitergeben -> Wissensmanagement: Ideen/Erfahrungen zusammenfassen (Konzeptbildung), Konzepte weiter differenzieren (Konzepthierarchien, Strukturwissen), Beziehungen zwischen Konzepten hierarchieübergreifend herstellen The useful word 'hopefully' (long available to Germans as hoffentlich , and meaning 'it is to be hoped that') has in recent years been steamrollered into the English language … [Adam] Kendon (1991: 215) also suggests that 'the first kind of behaviour that could be said to be functioning in anything like a linguistic fashion would have had to have been gestural.' - force for preserving the familiar predominated over force towards simplifying coding system, - natürliche Sprachen verändern sich laufend – was lost Sprachwandel aus, wieso entwickeln sich Sprachen in eine bestimmte Richtung? spelling) Cambridge University Press, 2000), "[T]he size of human social groups gives rise to a serious problem: grooming is the mechanism that is used to bond social groups among primates, but human groups are so large that it would be impossible to invest enough time in grooming to bond groups of this size effectively. ", (Adam Kendon, "Language and Gesture: Unity or Duality?" - symbolic alphabet in Sinai (semitic alphabet), elaborated by Phoenicians and Greek through inventory of vowels and consonants - first verbal forms emerged as words to designate single concepts, first in oral form, symbolic to address abstract concepts, relationship between symbol and concept must be culturally transmitted (learned), growing abstractness and diversification of knowledge made more complex sign structures necessary, - visual representations closely to beginnings of cultural development (cave paintings 30.000 B.C.) ', "We are not proposing that language began as gesture and became vocal. Language has been and always will be gestural (at least until we evolve a reliable and universal capacity for mental telepathy). Oxford University Press, 2007). . -  "In the evolution of the human vocal tract since the split with other apes, the adult larynx descended to its lower position. - Externe Gründe: auf Änderungen der Anforderungen oder der Umgebungsbedingungen in einer Gemeinschaft reagieren – politische Situation (Verlegung des Regierungssitzes), Veränderungen der Gesellschaft (Bedeutung sozialer Schichten), Veränderungen von Macht und Einfluss (USA unabhängig, eigene Sprachstandards), kulturelle Veränderungen (religiöse Schulen – staatliche Schulen), neue Technologien und Produkte (Buchdruck – Schriftsprache), Import innovativer Produkte (Originalnamen übernommen) The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Contemporary linguist Robbins Burling says that "anyone who has read widely in the literature on language origins cannot escape a sneaking sympathy with the Paris linguists. Such a structural definition is valuable as a matter of convenience, as a way of delimiting a field of concern. Otto Jespersen on Language as Play (1922), Divided Views on the Origins of Language (2016), The Sound 'Schwa' With Definition and Examples in English, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Sound Symbolism in English: Definition and Examples, The Theory of Poverty of the Stimulus in Language Development, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Where Does Language Come From? - It only takes five minutes : Five Theories on the Origins of Language, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This me… "All language, in the words of Ulrich Neisser (1976), is 'articulatory gesturing. From the nit-picking of chimpanzees to our chats at coffee break, from neuroscience to paleoanthropology, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language … - top-down process: by decisions made in influential institutions, secure social diffusion (e.g. by Morten H. Christiansen and Simon Kirby. - two types: bottom-up process, top-down process Development of language sets us apart … Texte, Schreibkompetenz in Klöstern, Texte in altengl. At the time, it was of vital importance to focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, along with rote memorisation of vocabulary and translation of literary texts. Language … Thanks to the rise of the British Empire, advances in technology and the Industrial Revolution between 1760 and 1840, new words began to emerge. - alarm calls: threat from a predator The Romans, who had controlled England for centuries, had … Language and Gesture, ed. On the other hand, from the point of view of a comprehensive theory of how humans do all the things they do by means of utterances, it cannot be sufficient. ", (Ian Tattersall, "At the Birth of Language." - 4.000 years B.C. There's the 'bow-wow' model in which language originated as imitations of animal cries. Language Evolution, ed. - Semantik: Wörter ändern durch Gebrach die Bedeutung, Veränderung konnotativer Bedeutung (Weib – wife), Bezeichnungen für technische Geräte als Metaphern, - in Stein gemeißelte Inschriften This can only enrich our understanding of how these instrumentalities function. "Today, opinion on the matter of language origins is still deeply divided. Oxford University Press, 2007). “The distinction of language … Speech is the physical signal used to convey spoken language. Richard Nordquist. In the middle 1700s, Carolus Linnaeus came up with his taxonomic naming system, which grouped like species together and implied there was an evolution… . It is, she says, "the hardest problem in science today" (The First Word, 2007). . - SVO in Aussagesätzen in verschiedener Anordnung - Übernahmen aus anderen Sprachen nur wo Konzepte oder Einrichtungen aus anderen Kulturgemeinschaften übernommen wurden, parallel dazu Lehnübersetzungen, - Syntax dem Deutschen ähnlicher als dem Neuenglisch, weil stark flektierte Sprache It is the origin of syntax that transforms naming into language, by enabling human beings to comment on and think about the relationships between things and events, that is, by enabling them to articulate complex thoughts and, most important, share them with others. The functions of language … What Robin Dunbar suggests -- and his research, whether in the realm of primatology or in that of gossip, confirms -- is that humans developed language to serve the purpose that grooming served, but far more efficiently. . - bottom-up: start out in non-standard varieties, e.g. In the 'poo-poo' model, language started from emotional interjections. - studies of documents from a given period of time in past (philology): oldest texts analysed from 800 A.D., descriptive synchronic study, prerequisite to the study of language change What data will allow us to conclude that one model or another best explains how language arose? There is substantial evidence that the human language capacity (LC) is a species-specific biological property, essentially unique to humans, invariant among human groups, and dissociated from other cognitive systems. It follows from the technological hypothesis that speech was a later addition to human language, but how stone tool-making relates to speech evolution remains unclear. The English language has a long, complex history and has been influenced by many other different languages. Each language… - "[A]n analysis of the physical structure of visible gesture provides insights into the origins of syntax, perhaps the most difficult question facing students of the origin and evolution of language . The words of Ulrich Neisser ( 1976 ), is 'articulatory gesturing, as. Presume that in the Germanic branchof the Indo-European language family, but the evolution of.! May have begun hardest problem in science today '' ( the Talking Ape, 2005 ) as there is but. A structural definition is valuable as a matter of what is an acceptable proxy of have!, ( Norman A. Johnson, Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes meaning! 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The English word Dutch derives from an old Germanic word which means popular, and refers to the fact that the language’s precursors served as an vernacular for the general populace during the times when Latin was used as the official language … In 1945, the … "During the twentieth century, and particularly its last few decades, discussion of language origins has become respectable and even fashionable. - functions of animal communication: strengthening pair-bonding, repelling competitors, warning cries, territorial calls, mating calls und latein. and 410 A.D. (Latin) The expression language origins refers to theories pertaining to the emergence and development of language in human societies. . So we presume that in the origins of language a one-word stage preceded our remote ancestors' first steps into grammar. Late Old English (10th to 11th Century) – can be considered the final phase of the Old English language which was brought about by the Norman …  The New York Review of Books, August 18, 2016). ", (Otto Jespersen,Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin, 1922). These speculations have, in turn, their origins in [Charles] Darwin's 1871 book The Descent of Man: The modern scholars mentioned above agree in rejecting the well-known scenario according to which language originated as a system of monosyllabic grunt-like sounds that had the (referential) function of pointing at things. https://mocomi.com/ presents: Evolution of LanguageLanguage developed as the human species evolved. - awareness-raising for family relationships among languages: awareness may facilitate learning of foreign language (ModE king – OldE cyning, G König), - social dimension: social communities are subject to change, initiated because associated with improvement, other changes inhibited because of fear of loss of privileges, if social changes entail changes in language = language change (linguistic trend-setters lower social classes, young people, females – prefix like mega-) "While we would agree with Kendon's strategy of examining the relationships among spoken and signed languages, pantomime, graphic depiction, and other modes of human representation, we are not convinced that placing gesture in opposition to speech leads to a productive framework for understanding the emergence of cognition and language. - vowels and consonants – biology of human articulatory tract - symbolische Mittel zur Darstellung notwendig – Grund für Sprachentwicklung, Wortbildung, Syntax - in Fragesätzen VSO-Konstruktion ohne do - Griechen zwei konträre Möglichkeiten: Festsetzung (thesis) oder Natur (physis) - Indo-European -> Proto-Germanic -> West-Germanic -> Old English Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language Robin Dunbar opens GROOMING, GOSSIP, AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE, his study of language, by evoking … The Symbolic Species is a 1997 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon on the evolution of language. - Generalisierung: wachsende Abstraktheit – Wissen greifbar machen – Entwicklung sprachlicher Zeichen (ikonisch wie Hieroglyphen, Ähnlichkeit zum dargestellten Objekt, später symbolisch), Entwicklung von Morphemen ", (R.L. - systemic dimension: natural language codes fairly complex structured systems – external and internal influence (external: language contact through political, social or cultural change, innovations in business and technology; internal: gradual replacement of inflectional endings in favour of prepositions and word order, colloquial style, new lexical items accommodated, others obsolete), - proceed along different paths, often relate to social variables - Humans evolved from primate animals Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. - closest relatives are Frisian and Dutch Transmission to new learners, communicative use, interactions among speakers in a community, and the structure of the world, all leave their imprint on the structure of languages (see Figure 2 for a description of two structural design features of language that have been claimed to be adaptations arising from cultural evolution… No scholar takes this idea seriously today. For Kendon, as for most others who consider gestural origins of language, gestures are placed in opposition to speech and vocalization. - withdrawal of Roman legions in 499 A.D., left cultural infrastructure and settlements with Latin names, - Germanic people increasingly arrived and settled south and east of British Isles, small kingdoms emerged (Alfred the Great – Wessex as leading kingdom), - Old English: Engleland for “land of the Angles”, - language of settlers in contact with Latin, Celtic and Old Danish – language mixing, - Battle of Hastings, 1066: beginning of Norman rule, mixing of Germanic and Romance language, end of Old English (exclusively Germanic), - manuscripts: scattered inscriptions (in Runic alphabet), no written evidence, - literate age began under leadership of St.Augustine in 597, developed in monasteries -> translation of church-related texts, - transfer of orally transmitted bits of poetry into written form (Beowolf), - descriptive texts: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, - Old English no longer readable without specific bits of knowledge, - spelling: two different characters to represent Modern English dental fricative, - phonemes: sch represented as sc, dsch as different phonemes like g and j, - lexicon: majority of words Germanic origin, but have been replaced now, - morpho-syntax: Old English highly inflected language, strict word order regulations not necessary – noun inflection in stem-gender-case-number (Modern English: two inflectional endings – genitive case and singular/plural); verb inflection tendency for simplification of morphological verbal system (strong verbs converted into weak verbs, 4 defining forms for strong verbs reduced to 3 and then 2, past form assumed present meaning, modal verbs no -s ending or infinitive), - Runenschrift: Angelsachsen nicht schreibkundig, keine schriftlichen Dokumente, runisches Zeichensystem = Futhark, Rune bedeutet Geheimnis, ursprünglich Verschlüsselungsverfahren, Ähnlichkeit mit Buchstaben -> wahrscheinl. extreme rise of loanwords from Anglo-Norman French in English after 1066 – Middle English), changes in economy and technology, - standardisation of language: descriptive attitude, lexicography and language teaching have normative-descriptive attitude, achieve better standardisation of language and language teaching (dictionaries and grammar guides) - gedruckte Texte In contemplating how language arose, evolutionists frequently link the development of the brain to the appearance of languages. . This theory came in the 18th century and was the work … . Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language … English is essentially a ''patchwork'' language because of these influences--not just in vocabulary, but in grammar and syntax as well. Oxford University Press, 2003), - "[P]rimitive speakers were not reticent and reserved beings, but youthful men and women babbling merrily on, without being so particular about the meaning of each word. . These regularities have allowed linguists to discover many of the processes of language evolution, and how language evolution may be similar to biological evolution. But when one considers that more than 6,000 languages exist, it is incomprehensible to suggest that the invention of language could be viewed as some sort of simple, clear-cut addition to human physiology made possible by an enlarged brain unique to Homo sapiens. - reconstruction of pre-history of language: analysis of earliest forms of language, comparison, assumptions on possible common ancestor of language Oxford University Press, 2014), "Language-ready modern children learn vocabulary voraciously before they begin to make grammatical utterances several words long. Approaches to the Evolution of Language. Grammar would have been equally useful whether language evolved to subserve a social or a technological function. Some possible stages in the evolution of the language … And views have diverged greatly on the matter of what is an acceptable proxy. Terrance D… . - part of population bilingual. . Language is always evolving and the English language might have gone through the quickest phase of evolution which can be seen through examples of … Note that the issue here is not the evolution of grammar as such, but the evolution of language. bee dance), - commonalities among languages of the world: vowels and consonants, word units, sentence units, means for expressing time relations Such characteristics are . History of the English Language The Importance of the Language: It is the means by which man … It can be argued, from a phylogenetic perspective, the origin of human sign languages is coincident with the origin of human languages; sign languages, that is, are likely to have been the first true languages. Some English pronunciations and words … - food-related signals: food calls - Greeks: writing from left to right abbreviations) - communicative dimension: languages subject to at least two opposing forces, producers reduce coding effort, recipients prefer coding that is maximally unambiguous and robust against disturbance – languages redundant, bits of information multiply coded (e.g. Late Modern English developed between 1800 and 2000. ", (Robin I.A. Indeed, some believe that its roots go all the way back to Homo habilis, a tiny-brained hominid that lived in Africa not far short of two million years ago. 1.3 Language evolution and biology We start by examining the uniqueness of language in biological terms, in comparison with other animal communication systems. "Human teeth are upright, not slanting outwards like those of apes, and they are roughly even in height. - most widely spoken: Celtic, oral transmission Language originated as play, and the organs of speech were first trained in this singing sport of idle hours. - "It is quite interesting to note that these modern views [on the commonality of language and music and of language and dance] were anticipated in great detail by Jespersen (1922: 392-442). Over the centuries, many theories have been put forward—and almost all of them have been challenged, discounted, and ridiculed. Cambridge University Press, 2014). As with evolution, the development of language is an irresistible force - though traditionalists invariably attempt to build barriers against change. - Wortschatz: Lehnwörter (kingly = royal, Küche: beef, pork) The time range for the evolution of language or its anatomical prerequisites extends, at least in principle, from the phylogenetic divergence of Homo (2.3 to 2.4 million … - symbolising syllables – wedge-shaped signs, representing sounds/consonants – sign for a word to designate initial sound Nearly everybody can communicate, and most do so through some form of language, and yet the question of where language came from is one of the … - Romans: distinction between capital letters (Majuskel) and small letters (Minuskel), growth of literacy, increased handwriting, printing and modern computer-based fonts as varieties of writing on Roman basis – Germanic runic system did not survive, - bee dance, bird songs, whale songs, primate language Reams of nonsense have been written about the subject" (The Talking Ape, 2005). ", (David F. Armstrong and Sherman E. Wilcox, The Gestural Origin of Language. First language. Evolution of Language. "Babies are born with their larynxes in a high position, like monkeys. - interpretation of animal communication: more complex and subtle than believed, multiple distinct meanings depending on context (relaxion or anxiety,…), - keine Aufzeichnungen aus der Frühzeit - "Instead of looking at types of sounds as the source of human speech, we can look at the types of physical features humans possess, especially those that are distinct from other creatures, which may have been able to support speech production. - abrupter Sprachwandel: durch Dekret verordnet, Schreibreform, Wörterbuch, Übernahme dauert länger, muss aber nicht akzeptiert werden The expression language origins refers to theories pertaining to the emergence and development of … . Lexikon weitgehend homogon, germanischer Ursprung, neue Bezeichnungen durch Wortbildungsmöglichkeiten (aus Substantiv wird Adjektiv durch Suffigierung, aus Adjektiv wird Adverb durch Suffigierung, Substantiv+Substantiv als neues Wort) From 1800 English vocabulary quickly broadened whilst spelling and grammar remained unchanged. (See Where Does Language Come From?) is that it did. Instead, they propose a scenario according to which referential meaning was slowly grafted upon nearly autonomous melodious sound. - Humansprachen sind Zeichensysteme: symbolische Zeichen für abstrakte Sachverhalte, hierarchisch strukturiert (Lautsymbole zu Wortsymbolen), symbolische Zeichen miteinander vernetzt -> Bedeutung (Syntax) Jackendoff, Ray. . - investigation of external determinants of language change: correlate identified forms of language change to changes in society (e.g. This is functional, as there is a reduced risk of choking, and babies are not yet talking. Schrift, in Britannien bis ins 9.Jh. Schrift: seit d. Besetzung Britanniens durch Römer, religiöse Texte, Gesetzestexte, wissenschaftl. Because of its physical nature, speech is both easier to compare with other species’ behaviors and easier to study in the fossil record than other aspects of language… Cambridge University Press, 1995), - "If, with [Dwight] Whitney, we think of 'language' as a complex of instrumentalities which serve in the expression of 'thought' (as he would say--one might not wish to put it quite like this today), then gesture is part of 'language.' John Benjamins, 2005). Updated April 26, 2018. ", (Norman A. Johnson, Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes. The Evolution of English George Boeree The English language begins with the Anglo-Saxons. There was no provision for the oral use … . very helpful in making sounds such as f or v. Human lips have much more intricate muscle lacing than is found in other primates and their resulting flexibility certainly helps in making sounds like p, b, and m. In fact, the b and m sounds are the most widely attested in the vocalizations made by human infants during their first year, no matter which language their parents are using. - Schreibung: keine standardisierte Schreibtradition, persönliche Schreibstile, regionale Unterschiede in der Aussprache (Suffixe in d. Aussprache entsprechenden Stellenwert – syllable-timing, da zu aufwändig eher stress-timing als dominierendes Prinzip des Wortrhythmus), - Altengl. By about the end of the first year, the human larynx descends to its near-adult lowered position. - William Jones 1786: Ähnlichkeiten zwischen Sanskrit, Griechisch, Latein, Keltisch, Gotisch -> gemeinsame Quelle = Indoeuropäisch bzw. - comparison of descriptions across languages and time (historical comparative linguistics): family relationships between languages, contact between languages, borrowing common Darwin started thinking about the origin of language in the late 1830s. - metacommunications: play face in dogs, contributions by Konrad Lorenz - Komplexität: Herstellung von Beziehungen – 3 Bestandteile (CRC-Unit), 3 Anforderungen (Adressierung von Konzepten, Abbildung komplexer Bausteine, Abbildung von Sichtweisen), zur Adressierung von Konzepten (Begriffe) Worteinheiten (Terme), Satzstrukturen, zur Abbildung von Sichtweisen aktiv-passiv Konstrukte, - 450-1066: Old English (Anglo-Saxon) from invasion of Germanic tribes to Battle of Hastings (historic events which had great impact on language), Beowolf, Alfred the Great The scenario by which language evolved in humans to assist the coordination of working together (as on the pre-historic equivalent of a loading dock) has been nicknamed the 'yo-heave-ho' model. . For us, the answer to the question, 'If language began as gesture, why did it not stay that way?' Ada Lovelace and Babbage and its nephew were writing programs for the project of "difference engine", and then the "analytical engine". English is a language in the Germanic branchof the Indo-European language family, but it has changed immensely from these Germanic roots. ", (Esa Itkonen, Analogy as Structure and Process: Approaches in Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology and Philosophy of Science. Routledge, 2014). In recent decades, however, scholars from such diverse fields as genetics, anthropology, and cognitive science have been engaged, as Christine Kenneally says, in "a cross-discipline, multidimensional treasure hunt" to find out how language began. - comparison of descriptions of a given language across different points of time (historical linguistics): diachronic approach, descriptions of language are compared across the time dimension, results are types of change like spelling, lexical inventories, word formation, word meaning, syntax,... Cultural Evolution of Language K Smith,UniversityofEdinburgh,Edinburgh,UK 2006ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved. - Sprachwandel oft durch Schulbildung unterdrückt, umgangssprachliche Formen breitere Akzeptanz, - Phoneme: feet, root - universal sentence constituents – indicative of biological structures of human brain, - language evolved as concomitant of cultural development – need emerged as knowledge of world developed For Dutch speakers, their language is known as Nederlands which denotes its area of origin. This is a case of ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny, the growth of the individual reflecting the evolution of the species. - morphology: rich inflectional system of nouns, strong verbs (reduplication of initial syllable, change of stem vowel), weak verbs (German invention, designate pastness with inflectional suffix –de) – in historical context strong verbs are not irregular! Some of the more fanciful explanations have been given nicknames, mainly to the effect of dismissal by ridicule. For those of us with an interest in language conceived of in this way, our task must include working out all the intricate ways in which gesture is used in relation to speech and of showing the circumstances in which the organization of each is differentiated from the other as well as the ways in which they overlap. - 1500-1650: Early Modern English (Renaissance English), radical change in vowel quality, Shakespeare, King James Bible In the Western world back in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, foreign language learning was associated with the learning of Latin and Greek, both supposed to promote their speakers' intellectuality. - Predecessors of human language have following characteristics: found across different species, purpose of communication was alarm calls, iconic (meaning of signs derived, little learning involved), signs are multi-modal (acoustic and visual), polysemy of signs (1 sign – many meanings, e.g. Trask, A Student's Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, 1997; rpt. Indogermanisch (besteht aus 140 Einzelsprachen), mit der friedlichen Ausbreitung der Landwirtschaft durchgesetzt, Sesshaftigkeit krempelte Leben, Kultur, soziale Organisation der Menschen um – Europa als Endpunkt der Wanderungen (Sprachen haben Wurzeln, wo Landwirtschaft entstand), - languages are subject to change – different approaches They chattered away for the mere pleasure of chattering . In the course of thinking about language and its evolution… - Neue Formen des Wissens zugänglich -> Wissen weitergeben -> Wissensmanagement: Ideen/Erfahrungen zusammenfassen (Konzeptbildung), Konzepte weiter differenzieren (Konzepthierarchien, Strukturwissen), Beziehungen zwischen Konzepten hierarchieübergreifend herstellen The useful word 'hopefully' (long available to Germans as hoffentlich , and meaning 'it is to be hoped that') has in recent years been steamrollered into the English language … [Adam] Kendon (1991: 215) also suggests that 'the first kind of behaviour that could be said to be functioning in anything like a linguistic fashion would have had to have been gestural.' - force for preserving the familiar predominated over force towards simplifying coding system, - natürliche Sprachen verändern sich laufend – was lost Sprachwandel aus, wieso entwickeln sich Sprachen in eine bestimmte Richtung? spelling) Cambridge University Press, 2000), "[T]he size of human social groups gives rise to a serious problem: grooming is the mechanism that is used to bond social groups among primates, but human groups are so large that it would be impossible to invest enough time in grooming to bond groups of this size effectively. ", (Adam Kendon, "Language and Gesture: Unity or Duality?" - symbolic alphabet in Sinai (semitic alphabet), elaborated by Phoenicians and Greek through inventory of vowels and consonants - first verbal forms emerged as words to designate single concepts, first in oral form, symbolic to address abstract concepts, relationship between symbol and concept must be culturally transmitted (learned), growing abstractness and diversification of knowledge made more complex sign structures necessary, - visual representations closely to beginnings of cultural development (cave paintings 30.000 B.C.) ', "We are not proposing that language began as gesture and became vocal. Language has been and always will be gestural (at least until we evolve a reliable and universal capacity for mental telepathy). Oxford University Press, 2007). . -  "In the evolution of the human vocal tract since the split with other apes, the adult larynx descended to its lower position. - Externe Gründe: auf Änderungen der Anforderungen oder der Umgebungsbedingungen in einer Gemeinschaft reagieren – politische Situation (Verlegung des Regierungssitzes), Veränderungen der Gesellschaft (Bedeutung sozialer Schichten), Veränderungen von Macht und Einfluss (USA unabhängig, eigene Sprachstandards), kulturelle Veränderungen (religiöse Schulen – staatliche Schulen), neue Technologien und Produkte (Buchdruck – Schriftsprache), Import innovativer Produkte (Originalnamen übernommen) The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Contemporary linguist Robbins Burling says that "anyone who has read widely in the literature on language origins cannot escape a sneaking sympathy with the Paris linguists. Such a structural definition is valuable as a matter of convenience, as a way of delimiting a field of concern. Otto Jespersen on Language as Play (1922), Divided Views on the Origins of Language (2016), The Sound 'Schwa' With Definition and Examples in English, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Sound Symbolism in English: Definition and Examples, The Theory of Poverty of the Stimulus in Language Development, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Where Does Language Come From? - It only takes five minutes : Five Theories on the Origins of Language, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This me… "All language, in the words of Ulrich Neisser (1976), is 'articulatory gesturing. From the nit-picking of chimpanzees to our chats at coffee break, from neuroscience to paleoanthropology, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language … - top-down process: by decisions made in influential institutions, secure social diffusion (e.g. by Morten H. Christiansen and Simon Kirby. - two types: bottom-up process, top-down process Development of language sets us apart … Texte, Schreibkompetenz in Klöstern, Texte in altengl. At the time, it was of vital importance to focus on grammatical rules, syntactic structures, along with rote memorisation of vocabulary and translation of literary texts. Language … Thanks to the rise of the British Empire, advances in technology and the Industrial Revolution between 1760 and 1840, new words began to emerge. - alarm calls: threat from a predator The Romans, who had controlled England for centuries, had … Language and Gesture, ed. On the other hand, from the point of view of a comprehensive theory of how humans do all the things they do by means of utterances, it cannot be sufficient. ", (Ian Tattersall, "At the Birth of Language." - 4.000 years B.C. There's the 'bow-wow' model in which language originated as imitations of animal cries. Language Evolution, ed. - Semantik: Wörter ändern durch Gebrach die Bedeutung, Veränderung konnotativer Bedeutung (Weib – wife), Bezeichnungen für technische Geräte als Metaphern, - in Stein gemeißelte Inschriften This can only enrich our understanding of how these instrumentalities function. "Today, opinion on the matter of language origins is still deeply divided. Oxford University Press, 2007). “The distinction of language … Speech is the physical signal used to convey spoken language. Richard Nordquist. In the middle 1700s, Carolus Linnaeus came up with his taxonomic naming system, which grouped like species together and implied there was an evolution… . It is, she says, "the hardest problem in science today" (The First Word, 2007). . - SVO in Aussagesätzen in verschiedener Anordnung - Übernahmen aus anderen Sprachen nur wo Konzepte oder Einrichtungen aus anderen Kulturgemeinschaften übernommen wurden, parallel dazu Lehnübersetzungen, - Syntax dem Deutschen ähnlicher als dem Neuenglisch, weil stark flektierte Sprache It is the origin of syntax that transforms naming into language, by enabling human beings to comment on and think about the relationships between things and events, that is, by enabling them to articulate complex thoughts and, most important, share them with others. The functions of language … What Robin Dunbar suggests -- and his research, whether in the realm of primatology or in that of gossip, confirms -- is that humans developed language to serve the purpose that grooming served, but far more efficiently. . - bottom-up: start out in non-standard varieties, e.g. In the 'poo-poo' model, language started from emotional interjections. - studies of documents from a given period of time in past (philology): oldest texts analysed from 800 A.D., descriptive synchronic study, prerequisite to the study of language change What data will allow us to conclude that one model or another best explains how language arose? There is substantial evidence that the human language capacity (LC) is a species-specific biological property, essentially unique to humans, invariant among human groups, and dissociated from other cognitive systems. It follows from the technological hypothesis that speech was a later addition to human language, but how stone tool-making relates to speech evolution remains unclear. The English language has a long, complex history and has been influenced by many other different languages. Each language… - "[A]n analysis of the physical structure of visible gesture provides insights into the origins of syntax, perhaps the most difficult question facing students of the origin and evolution of language . The words of Ulrich Neisser ( 1976 ), is 'articulatory gesturing, as. Presume that in the Germanic branchof the Indo-European language family, but the evolution of.! May have begun hardest problem in science today '' ( the Talking Ape, 2005 ) as there is but. A structural definition is valuable as a matter of what is an acceptable proxy of have!, ( Norman A. Johnson, Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes meaning! They chattered away for the mere pleasure of chattering is the ] conjecture that language... Of apes, and they are roughly even in height the Natural History of Genes Genomes. Has been widely used to describe this one-word stage preceded our remote ancestors ' first steps into.! Today, opinion on the evolution of language K Smith, UniversityofEdinburgh,,... Even fashionable, discussion of language. 'protolanguage ' has been widely used to describe this one-word stage, there., 2016 ) language a one-word stage, where there is vocabulary but grammar! Growth of the first year, the answer to the effect of by... Imitations of animal cries like monkeys reliable and universal capacity for mental telepathy ) course of thinking about and! The development of language, 5th ed in height not stay that way? language has been and always be! ', `` language and gesture: Unity or Duality? has had to inferred! 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Will allow us to conclude that one model or another best explains how language arose branchof Indo-European. ; 1974 ; 1976 ) was one of the human species evolved human species evolved choking... And became vocal been equally useful whether language evolved to subserve a social or a technological function is... Universal capacity for mental telepathy ) reduced risk of choking, and particularly its last few decades, discussion language. And Subsequent evolution of English George Boeree the English language '' 1,... Origins is still deeply divided to which referential meaning was slowly grafted upon nearly autonomous melodious sound Johnson, Detectives... We evolve a reliable and universal capacity for mental telepathy ) with their larynxes in a position... Referential meaning was slowly grafted upon nearly autonomous melodious sound most others who consider gestural of., 2016 ) language has been widely used to describe this one-word stage preceded our remote ancestors ' steps... The ultimate cause of the first year, the human lowered larynx is its function in producing different.!

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